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Interview the youth about family planning and their perceptions of family planning clinic services and health provider attitudes medications starting with p buy oxybutynin 5 mg low cost. Visit a clinic and see what the quality of services is and demonstrate how family planning is linked to symptoms nausea headache fatigue buy generic oxybutynin pills them and how it could make a significant contribution to facial treatment buy 5mg oxybutynin with amex their achievement. Interview clients leaving the clinic to find out whether or not they are satisfied with the services. Organise televised debates, panel discussions, or What do the media need to advance family planning? Journalists need to understand family planning before they will put family planning-related issues on their "news" agenda. Just as important, family planning advocates who work with the media need to understand what makes "news. These ingredients include timeliness, potential or actual conflict, prominence of the people involved, and the number of people affected, among others. Form a network or coalition of journalists to focus on family planning and reproductive health, and share information and story ideas. Engage senior broadcast producers, print editors, and heads of media associations (the "gatekeepers") in family planning issues to enhance the likelihood that beat-level reporters will have their stories published and aired. Give coverage to relevant international treaties new, or at least should seem new. One of the best ways to ensure that and conventions that the country has supported, an event will be covered is to get a well-known public official to participate. When the prime minister, health minister, or member of parliament kicks off an event, the news media are there to cover it. In fact, the newspaper included an entire page of articles related to reproductive health every week. The Chronicle created this page, under the banner Reproductive Health Matters, after its editor joined a regional network that helped journalists find and write stories about reproductive health issues. Through educational seminars, the editor learned about the issues and their importance to the people in her community. Before long, the newspaper-aided by the popular page of reproductive health stories-built a loyal readership that helped to increase publication from once to twice a week. The more people are affected by an event, the internet the phenomenal expansion of news and information dissemination via the Internet bears special mention. To keep abreast of issues, journalists often turn to the Internet and to organisations whose web sites have family planning and reproductive health information in the press relations or media sections. These websites can become quick sources of information for journalists if they are kept up to date. Also, many journalists rely on e-mail, and family planning organisations should find out if their journalist contacts prefer to receive news releases, reports, and other materials electronically (see website sources for journalists listed at the end of this brief). As Internet access continues to expand across Africa, family planning advocates are increasingly turning to this an issue, or a problem, the more interested the news media will be. Journalists are also interested in trends-an increase or decrease in teenage pregnancies, for example-and their consequences. However, when conflict emerges, you can use it as an opportunity to explain your side of the story. Local news media tend to be more interested in news that occurs close to home rather than in another country or on another continent. The reach of the Internet and the "viral" nature of e-mail, have spurred an increase in advocacy organisations around the globe. Examples of simple, low-cost Internet advocacy activities include compiling a list of e-mail addresses of the intended audiences and using it to send periodic e-broadcasts of news, research findings, or events; establishing a monthly family planning e-newsletter; and conducting online discussions. Creating a "list serve" of activists or family planning champions that allows group members to post information, share news, or request assistance can help maintain alliances and coalitions, and help build local social networks. In summary Engaging the media is a highly effective approach for reaching wide audiences and influential people. It is an essential component of an overall advocacy campaign and serves to reinforce messages disseminated through other channels. Time and resources spent by family planning advocates to increase media coverage are excellent investments.

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One of the most significant recent trends in migration has been the entry of women into migration streams that in previous decades had been primarily male symptoms celiac disease cheap oxybutynin master card, with an increasing number of female migrants moving on their own [8] medications without doctors prescription purchase oxybutynin 5 mg on line. Many rural-to-urban migrants settle in slums medicine cabinet discount oxybutynin 2.5 mg without a prescription, contributing to a projection of a doubling of slum settlements over the next 30 years [9]. Although there is a comprehensive literature on migration and fertility, I provide a contribution in three key ways. First, I use quasi-experimental methods, in particular individual fixed effects models, to reduce selection bias that confounds the relationship between migration and sexual behaviour. Second, I focus on the context of migration to poor residential neighborhoods, the primary force underlying the rapid rates of urbanization 2 observed in developing countries. I show that migration is associated with an increase in risk of pregnancy and abortion in the first 48 months after a move, even after accounting for time invariant unmeasurable attributes. Africa is urbanizing rapidly: by 2035, 50% of sub-Saharan Africa will live in urban areas [7], and the concern over the welfare of migrants will become increasingly important to policy-makers. My research shows that policies that target recent migrants to slums may reduce risk of unintended pregnancy and improve health. Possible policies could include integrating quality family planning services into high volume clinic settings, minimizing stockouts and supply chain disruptions, and providing transportation and family planning service vouchers to new arrivals. Lastly, in chapter three, I examine the appropriateness of a common methodology used to make policy recommendations. Because observations are grouped, modeling adjustments must be made to account for the correlation in outcomes. However, a large literature has shown that when the number of groups is small, common approaches for adjustment ­ such as the cluster-robust variance matrix ­ may lead to standard errors that are too small [10­12] and therefore inaccurate conclusions about whether policies are effective or not. Finally, using replication, I show the implications of the findings for health policy research. I replicate the results of a recent article that claims that over-the-counter emergency contraception increases risky sexual behaviour in teens. However, the proportion of treated groups (states in this case) in the original analysis is low. When I apply methodologies with adequate coverage rates, I find that the effects are no longer statistically significant. Overall, my research demonstrates the importance of appropriate methodology in the context of clustered data when the number of clusters is small. Second, I demonstrate the importance of appropriate methodology in a popular area of health policy research to avoid spurious results, and demonstrate the importance of my findings on U. I will also explore the impact of social networks on information diffusion in the context of adolescent mHealth interventions. Adding It Up: the Costs and Benefits of Investing in Sexual and Reproductive Health. Systematic review on what works, what does not work and why of implementation of mobile health (mHealth) projects in Africa. World urbanization prospects: the 2011 revision (Economic & Social Affairs report). We assess whether a mobile phone sexual education intervention improves reproductive health. Methods: We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial among secondary school students of ages 14-23 in Accra, Ghana. We randomized 38 schools via computer-generated random numbers to Unidirectional intervention (12 schools), Interactive intervention (12), and control (14). Results: 247 students (12 schools) completed the Unidirectional intervention, 197 students (10 schools) completed the Interactive, and 277 students (12 schools) completed the trial in the control group. Knowledge was retained at 15 months for the Unidirectional (45%) and Interactive (54%). There was no impact of the intervention on pregnancy in the past year for the full sample of participants. Conclusions: Text messaging programs can lead to large and sustained improvements in reproductive health knowledge among adolescents in low-income settings. While effects on overall pregnancy rates are unclear, the programs may be effective in reducing pregnancy risk among sexually active girls.

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