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Key Evaluation Findings the study had the following findings in comparing the treatment site with the preschool that did not have the training program: · · Fathers/men participated in parent involvement activities at a significantly higher rate at the preschool with the training program acne treatment reviews buy cleocin gel in united states online. Prior to acne 5 months postpartum buy generic cleocin gel 20 gm on-line the start of the program skin care quotes sayings buy generic cleocin gel pills, 5 percent of the total parent involvement at the preschool with the training program included fathers/males. Of the teachers who participated in the training program, those teachers who were highly committed to involving fathers/males reported significantly more contact with fathers/males than did teachers in the training program who were not highly committed to involving fathers. A significantly higher proportion of fathers/males initiated family-member contacts at the treatment site than at the control site. The Illinois State Board of Education currently is funding the statewide teacher training. Implementation Detail Program Design the focus and intensity of program activities varied over the course of three years based on the identified needs and interests of individual teachers and school teams. Work with one teaching team, for example, focused on actively involving fathers/males in the classrooms. The research and development group that assisted in the development of this program worked with the three teams of four classrooms each at the treatment site on a regular basis for all aspects of the program. In addition, the program sought to incorporate ways to deal with the resistance that some teachers have to involving fathers/males in school activities. Staffing the research and development group from the University of Illinois provided staff support. This group consisted of the lead program evaluator/article author and two graduate assistants. During the three-year evaluation period, program staff held monthly training and technical assistance meetings with each preschool teaching team and bimonthly meetings for all teachers in the program. The statewide training program for pre-kindergarten teachers in Illinois has made some adaptations to the original program and schedule. The evaluation design had several limitations, including a small sample size of just 21 teachers, a post-test-only design, and lack of a long-term follow-up. The disadvantage to the post-test-only design was that it was not entirely certain that differences between the groups resulted from the program. Although the results of the evaluation were encouraging, the limitations of the study design make it difficult to generalize the findings to other similar intervention - 195 - programs. It should also be noted that there were no outside evaluators of this program; the evaluation was conducted solely by the program designer. Brent McBride Childhood Development Laboratory University of Illinois at Urbana/Champaign 1105 W. Rane, Father/Male Involvement in Early Childhood Programs: Training Staff to Work with Men, in J. Bae, Intervening with Teachers to Encourage Father/Male Involvement in Early Childhood Programs, Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Vol. Last Reviewed April 2004 FluText Program Info Outcome Areas Healthy and Safe Children Indicators Children experiencing good physical health Topic Areas Age of Child Early Childhood (0-8) Type of Setting Health Care Provider - 196 - Type of Service Health Care Services Health Education Type of Outcome Addressed Physical Health Evidence Level Proven Program Overview FluText is a text messaging intervention that sent automated vaccination reminders to parents of children and adolescents aged six months to 18 years. Program Participants FluText has been used among parents of children and adolescents aged six months to 18 years, though it has been found to be effective at increasing influenza vaccine uptake only among children aged six months to less than five years. The four study sites were four clinics affiliated with New York-Presbyterian Hospital and Columbia University Medical Center (Stockwell et al. The clinics serve a population that is predominantly Latino and eligible for free vaccines through the federal Vaccines for Children Program. Children and adolescents aged six months to 18 years as of September 28, 2010, who had attended one of the four clinics in the past 12 months and had a parental cell phone number recorded in the hospital registration system were eligible for the evaluation. All eligible children aged six months to less than five years were randomized to intervention or control groups. A random sample of eligible children aged five to 18 years was also selected for randomization to intervention or control groups. The baseline intervention consisted of a series of five weekly text messages sent to the cell phones of parents of children in the intervention group. The first three messages provided educational information on vaccine safety and the seriousness of influenza infection in children. The last two messages recommended that the target child receive the influenza vaccine and provided information about flu vaccine clinics held each Saturday from October through March at their health care clinic.
Mishkin 1997 Differential effects of early hippocampal pathology on episodic and semantic memory acne scar laser treatment order genuine cleocin gel on line. Waters 1979 Individual differences in infant-mother attachment at twelve and eighteen months: Stability and change in families under stress acne 3 step system buy cleocin gel american express. Krakow 1984 the emergence and consolidation of self-control from eighteen to skin care guru order cleocin gel discount thirty months of age: Normative trends and individual difference. Versluis-Den Bieman 1992 Damaging backgrounds: Later adjustment of international adoptees. Schoefs 1996 the internal working model of the self, attachment, and competence in five-yearolds. Barnett 1999 Monographs for the Society for Research in Child Development: Atypical Patterns of Attachment in Infancy and Early Childhood Among Children at Developmental Risk (Serial no. Gottlieb 1997 the invalid separation of effects of nature and nurture: Lessons from animal experimentation. Johnson 1988 A follow-up evaluation of the Houston Parent-Child Development Center: Intelligence test results. Perales 1989 Iron deficiency anemia: Adverse effects on infant psychomotor development. Cobo 1990 Cognitive effect at 5 years of age in infants who were anemic at 12 months: A longitudinal study. Hauser-Cram 1996 Child care needs, arrangement, and satisfaction of mothers of children with developmental disabilities. Jones 1993 Facilitating prelinguistic communication skills in young children with developmental delay. Bradley 1996 Effects of poverty on home environment: An analysis of three-year outcome data for low birth weight premature infants. Kolpacoff 1989 the long-term effectiveness and clinical significance of three cost-effective training programs for families with conduct-problem children. McNeil 1978 the Ypsilanti Perry Preschool Project: Preschool Years and Longitudinal Results Through Fourth Grade. Gianoulakis 1996 Fetal ethanol exposure: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and Я-endorphin responses to repeated stress. Miller 1994 A prospective longitudinal study of lanugage development in late talkers. Jordan 1989 Unpackaging cultural effects on classroom learning: Native Hawaiian peer assistance and child-generated activity. In New Approaches to Evaluating Community Initiatives: Concepts, Methods, and Contexts. Ronda 1979 the sleep-wake pattern of cortisol and growth hormone secretion during nonentrained (free-running) conditions in man. Paper presented at the Human Pituitary Hormones: Circadian and Episodic Variations conference in Brussels, Belgium. Tuten 1992 Predicting achievement in grades three through ten using the metropolitan reading test. Pennington 1988 Assessing frontal lobe functioning in children: Views from developmental psychology. Groisser 1991 A normative-developmental study of executive function: A window on prefrontal function in children. Asher 1995 the academic lives of neglected, rejected, popular, and controversial children. Bellm 1999 Taking on Turnover: An Action Guide for Child Care Center Teachers and Directors. Child Care Teachers and the Quality of Care in America, Final report of the National Child Care Staffing Study. Angell 1994 A picture book reading intervention in day care and home for children from lowincome families.
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Despite ongoing hardship acne jawline 20gm cleocin gel free shipping, most of the mothers in the study adapted to skin care product reviews buy 20 gm cleocin gel amex their situations skin care 50s order cleocin gel 20gm with mastercard. They budgeted carefully and spent considerable time and energy making money in alternative ways. Despite their efforts, however, arrangements for child care, housing, and medical care were often precarious. Any one of a number of events, such as a family or extendedfamily illness, could cause major disruptions to their employment and family lives. The chronic and pervasive stress that Edin and Lein document suggests important potential links among economic hardship, mental health, and parenting. In addition, Kessler (1982) demonstrated that low levels of education, income, and occupational status each make independent contributions to the variation seen in maternal psychological distress. The connection between economic hardship and mental health is important because, as discussed in Chapter 9, poor mental health is related to harsh, inconsistent, and detached parenting. These associations are often dependent on the age and gender of the children and, as with each aspect of socioeconomic status, they account for only part of the association between poverty and child well-being (McLeod and Shanahan, 1993; Watson et al. Fathers who experienced job loss and economic deprivation were more distressed psychologically and prone to explosive, rejecting, and punitive parenting. Preschool-age children in these families, especially boys, were more likely to exhibit problem behaviors, while adolescent girls were more likely to have lower feelings of self-adequacy and to be less goal-oriented. Elder and colleagues (1985) speculated that the gender and age differences reflected different experiences in families during the deprived times. During this time of economic hardship, adolescent boys sought economic opportunities outside the home, which reduced the time they spent with their families, gave them a useful role to play, and may have reduced the amount of negative family interactions they experienced. Younger children and adolescent girls did not have the same access to buffers provided by extrafamilial activities. In one, reduced financial resources among black, rural, single-parent families were associated with lower maternal self-esteem, and lower self-esteem was associated with deterioration in family routines and the quality of mother-child interactions (Brody and Flor, 1997). Substance abuse constitutes another risk factor associated with decreased mental health and economic hardship among parents (Table 10-1). Since the effects of drugs vary dramatically by drug type, substance-abusing parents may display a variety of patterns of impaired parenting. Most of the evidence comes from studies that have documented high occurrences of abuse and neglect among these parents; more harsh, negative, angry, threatening, and punitive interactions; and less responsiveness to their children (Bauman and Dougherty, 1983; Bernstein et al. However, because drug abuse often co-occurs with other psychiatric problems and disadvantaged circumstances, it is hard to know whether the parenting practices of substance-abusing parents are uniquely impaired by their drug habits (Mayes, 1995). Finally, both the reporting and incidence of child maltreatment are higher among low-income than high-income families (Table 10-1; Trickett et al. Studies of the etiology of child maltreatment suggest that while child abuse and neglect capture different behaviors, children who are abused are also often neglected, and differences in of Sciences. Some have speculated, for example, that persistent poverty is more closely related to neglect, while abuse is precipitated by sudden economic loss (Aber, 1994). Research suggests that economic hardship is only one of several risk factors that may contribute to child abuse and neglect. Nevertheless, the contribution of economic hardship to child maltreatment suggests that some of the negative effects of poverty on children may result from higher rates of abuse and neglect (McLoyd, 1997). This implies a pressing need to integrate economic and mental health policy at numerous levels, ranging from federal decision making to the implementation and evaluation of both economic interventions, such as welfare reform, and early interventions for children and families in local communities. We also have much more to learn about connections among low socioeconomic status, parental mental health, parenting behaviors, and child well-being. Important questions concern the differential effects of economic hardship on parents of infants, toddlers, older children, and adolescents; the progression of effects on parents and children over time; and identification of factors that assist or undermine coping. In light of the more serious problems that are associated with cumulative risk (Sameroff et al. Parental Beliefs Only modest differences have been found in the typical parenting practices and parent-child interactions of low-income and higher-income parents (Miller and Davis, 1997; Radziszewka et al.
Even if he or she manages to skin care while pregnant order discount cleocin gel online read a text aloud acne vulgaris cause discount cleocin gel 20 gm fast delivery, the child may not understand the text at all skin care expiration date discount cleocin gel 20gm on line. The child confuses similar-looking letters, for example, "p" and "q," and "d" and "b. The result is a learning disability that can affect spelling, handwriting, and the organization of writing on the page. Signs of dysgraphia include (National Center for Learning Disabilities [Common warning signs of dysgraphia in children in grades 3 -8], 2013): illegible printing and/or handwriting. Dyscalculia is a disability that affects the way a child understands and uses numbers. Use props, charts, and other visual aids such as pictures and symbols to help the child access and assimilate key information. Show the child how to use a pointer or bookmark to keep track of the words on a page. Encourage the child to use a highlighter pen to mark key information in longer texts. Show the child how to use the spell-check function in a word processor and let him or her do as much work as possible on the computer. Let the student take a bathroom break or stand up and stretch as a way to oxygenate the brain and reduce fatigue. Set clear expectations for good behavior and academic work, and give the child immediate positive feedback whenever he or she meets those expectations. In addition, you may consider the following accommodations and interventions: Seat the child as close as possible to your desk (or wherever you spend the most time during class). Monitor activities closely and remind the student of details he or she may have missed. List the activities for the lesson on the board and check each step off as you cover it in the lesson. Vary the pace of the lesson and include a mix of activities that are rapid and intense, and slower and more focused. Make sure there is quiet in the class (no distractions) when learners are working on more challenging tasks. Incorporate short stretching activities at different points in your lessons; this helps students to release tension and regain focus. Provide acceptable, non-disruptive alternatives for students who need constant movement: a small object or squeeze ball that the student can manipulate, or replace the seat with an exercise ball (as long as this can be done safely). For students who interrupt or have outbursts in class, provide a notebook so that he or she can still express the idea, but in a less disruptive way. Establish a signal with the child, such as touching the desk, to remind him or her to stay on task. When possible, provide illustrations or symbols that students can check off as they work. Institute a reward system to encourage positive behavior: a sticker for remaining seated for the whole class, a certificate after a week of high effort, or randomly timed positive feedback about a specific behavior. Make sure there are predefined consequences for problem behaviors; for example, after three warnings (in one week), the teacher sends a note home to the parents. Intellectual Disability According to the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (2013), an intellectual disability is associated with "significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. Intellectual disability can be the result of a birth defect, an injury, or an illness. The teacher should incorporate activities that support a range of learning styles. It is also important to include model language and examples because children with intellectual disability have trouble making generalizations. Children 82 Teaching Learners with Special Needs Chapter 3 with Down syndrome often have distinct physical characteristics, particularly a difference in facial features and reduced muscle tone. They tend to grow at a slower rate than their peers and may also suffer from congenital health conditions such as heart defects or hearing and vision problems (KidsHealth, 2013). Parents should have their child checked by doctors to rule out or treat any of these additional health concerns. All children with Down syndrome are unique, with individual abilities and challenges.