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What is their capacity or motivation to blood pressure phobia order discount perindopril line participate in the design of this project? Ensure that assessments are designed as a series of events and think through who needs to prehypertension effects safe 2mg perindopril attend which event to heart attack remix dj samuel purchase perindopril with a visa make what decisions and how and when is this best organized? In some countries, there may be standards to ensure assessments are conducted legally, ethically and with due regard for those involved in the study. The following points will help you ensure that human dignity is being respected during your assessments: ensure that respondents know who you are, the agency you represent and how the information will be used. Without a plan or budget, it is easy to find yourself in a situation where you may collect too much information with no clear idea of what to do with it. So to start, it is important to be clear about what resources will be available for the assessment, because this will affect how the assessment is undertaken. If there are other important considerations such as ensuring quality or relevant ethical issues? The table on the following page, outlining the four steps, helps you record your decisions and plans. What did our stakeholder analysis tell us about who should be involved, when and how in the assessment? How does this table compare with the planning for assessments that you have previously undertaken? How might you modify the above table to best suit your needs for an assessment plan? The objectives can be seen as the border of the puzzle and all the information collected should fit into these set borders. Setting objectives that are too narrow means that relevant, interesting information may fall outside of the assessment frame. Deciding What Information is Needed Once you have defined your objectives, you should have a pretty good idea of the kind of information you will want to collect. For example, one of the objectives from Step One was "To identify serious problems facing families and communities coping with orphans. What are the current levels of support that these families receive from government? There are many resources to help you determine what information you need to collect, given your objectives. Check within your region or with colleagues with experience in the appropriate sector, to see if good examples of assessments exist. Refer to assessments done for recent Strategic Plans in your country to see if any of that information meets your needs for the project assessment. Defining How the Information will be Collected Review the options and make decisions about the appropriate combination of methodologies you might use to collect information: secondary data, interviews and observation activities. A literature review for experiences, best practices and lessons learned is essential during the assessment phase. Gather and read written evaluation reports or abstracts for projects addressing similar problems from your own country program. Step Four: What Other Issues Should We Address In this step, you address issues that will ensure the quality and validity of the assessment. Who should be interviewed to ensure that the four dimensions of need are represented? Who should be interviewed to ensure that we understand the make-up of this community? Decide which ones are most important for your assessment exercise and how you will ensure that they are addressed. Develop an assessment plan for this project utilizing what you have learned in this section of ProPack, and discuss the following questions with members of your learning community. You will be asked to summarize how you gathered the information that you used to make decisions about the strategy (see Chapter V). With this information, the reader can better understand how you arrived at the proposed strategy. So, it is important to ensure that assessment information is carefully documented and stored. This manual is a reference document that provides specific guidance, steps, tools and methods for emergency assessments. The manual includes specific topics, questions and suggestions for methods for each of these kinds of assessment.
Altered fire regimes arteria records purchase 8mg perindopril with visa, insect and disease outbreaks that reduce mature stands hypertension during pregnancy purchase perindopril toronto, early seral-stage coniferous stands and/or dense understory cover further increases the sensitivity of this species arteria zarzad buy perindopril 8mg mastercard. There is little to no information on the sensitivity of the Mazama Pocket Gopher to climate change. Mazama Pocket Gophers may exhibit some sensitivity to warmer, drier soil moisture conditions that make burrowing more challenging. Sensitivity of this species may be enhanced if invasive species such as Scotch broom increase under future climate conditions. However, prairie and grassland habitats may expand under future climate conditions. This species inhabits drier habitats than other shrew species, but may be sensitive to shifts in habitat availability due to drought, flooding, and fire, as well as habitat conversion. Though limited information is available regarding the sensitivity to climate change of Minke Whales in the North Pacific, given their migration patterns and the wide range of conditions they experience, they are unlikely to have direct physiological sensitivity to climateinduced changes in ocean conditions. Their sensitivity will be higher due to potential fluctuations in preferred prey availability, like forage fish. Though warmer ocean temperatures could lead to declines in herring availability, studies have shown that Minke Whales are generalists and easily switch between different types of prey depending on abundance, which allows them to adjust well to seasonal variability in prey. Limited information is available regarding the sensitivity of North Pacific Right Whales to climate change. In general, their overall sensitivity is likely due to changes in abundance of their primary prey, copepods. Because North Pacific Right Whales are limited in the type of prey they can consume and require large aggregations of copepods for optimal feeding, declines in copepod production that could be triggered by changing ocean circulation or potential decreases in pH could greatly impact North Pacific Right Whales. Altered fire regimes that degrade or eliminate habitat may also impact this species. Olympic Marmots are also indirectly sensitive to climate change through effects on their primary predator, Coyotes. Warmer winters and lower snowpack are thought to allow Coyotes to persist at higher elevations than they could otherwise, increasing their predation on Olympic Marmots. Some evidence suggests that Olympic Marmots may also be directly sensitive to changes in snowpack; prolonged spring snow cover may be detrimental to survival and reproduction while sparse winter snow cover increases winter mortality. Sensitivity of the Pacific Marten to climate change will likely be driven by its habitat specificity and reliance on deep snowpack. Altered fire regimes and/or drought that result in reductions in the distribution and connectivity of important habitat features. Pacific Martens rely on deep and persistent snowpack to exclude predators, provide high-quality hunting conditions, and provide winter resting and denning sites. Future reductions in snowpack may affect both the Pacific Marten and its prey species due to creation of more thermally variable subnivean space, and may alter Pacific Marten spatial distributions and/or competition with Fishers. There are documented declines in Pygmy Rabbit populations with climate-driven changes in sagebrush habitat over the last 4,000 years. Limited information is available regarding the response of Sea Otters to climate change. Red Urchins, clams, bivalves), particularly since Sea Otters require large amounts of prey (approximately 30% of their body mass per day) to meet their metabolic requirements. Sea Otter prey may be sensitive to decreases in pH, and declines in prey abundance could impact Sea Otters, though their sensitivity may not be as high due to their ability to switch between prey species. Additionally, increasing temperatures could promote survival of marine bacterial pathogens that infect Sea Otters and cause mortality, though there are high levels of uncertainty regarding the level of increase in and potential effects of bacterial pathogens on sea otters. Sea Otters may also be sensitive to increased winter storm intensity and resulting high surf conditions that could result in higher mortality. Though very limited information is available regarding the sensitivity of Sei Whales to climate change, it is likely that their main sensitivity will be due to any changes in their preferred prey species (zooplankton [e. Sei Whales feed primarily on zooplankton and are found in areas with high zooplankton concentrations; thus, any changes in zooplankton abundance, which could be caused by increases in sea surface temperature or changes in ocean circulation patterns, could limit prey availability for Sei Whales. However, because Sei Whales are able to target multiple types of prey, they may be less sensitive to changes in zooplankton abundance and may be able to switch to other prey species. There are both migratory individuals and year-round residents in Washington; during spring migration, there has been documented mortality at wind energy facilities. For example, altered fire regimes that degrade or eliminate tree-roosting habitats such as large trees and snags may affect the Silver-haired Bat. Though limited information is available regarding the sensitivity of Sperm Whales to climate change, their overall sensitivity is likely to be influenced by changes in the availability of their primary prey, squid.
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Populations nesting on the banks of the Columbia River may be vulnerable to prehypertension at 20 trusted perindopril 8mg shifting flow regimes and flood peaks blood pressure medication muscle weakness purchase cheap perindopril on line. Populations in beach/dune habitats along the Washington coast are vulnerable to heart attack 80s song cheap perindopril 8mg on line changing sediment accretion and erosion patterns, which can change in response to hydrological shifts, current changes, changing precipitation patterns, and human management practices. However, the overall sensitivity of Surf Scoters is primarily due to dependencies on specific breeding and foraging habitats that could be affected by climate change. Increases in temperature or sea level as well as changes in water chemistry may alter prey species composition and Pacific Herring spawn as well as alter subtidal foraging habitats. Surf Scoters are a late-nesting species and may also exhibit reduced flexibility in their timing of breeding, increasing their overall sensitivity to climate change. The main ways in which Tufted Puffins will be sensitive to climate change are through alterations to their breeding habitat and food supply. Predicted increases in sea surface temperature could lead to declines in abundance of zooplankton and small forage fish that this species preys upon. During breeding season Tufted Puffins stay close to their young and forage very close to breeding sites; thus, local declines in prey availability could lead to slower growth rates and reproductive failure, since adults will not be able to travel long distances to find alternate food sources. Additionally, sea level rise could impact breeding and foraging habitat for Tufted Puffins by altering the intertidal and subtidal areas where they deposit eggs and forage. Very limited information is available regarding the sensitivity of Upland Sandpipers to climate change, particularly in Washington. In the Midwest, Upland Sandpipers have exhibited some sensitivity to increasing temperatures, with earlier spring migration arrival positively correlated with increasing temperature. Declines in their preferred grassland and wet meadow habitat have already contributed to possible extirpation of the Upland Sandpiper in Washington; climate changes such as altered precipitation patterns that lead to further habitat loss will negatively impact this species. Altered fire regimes that remove shrubs and promote grasses may benefit this species. This species likely exhibits physiological sensitivity to temperature (particularly cold temperatures); adults elevationally migrate in response to shifting temperatures, and nestlings may become hypothermic during cold, wet periods. In addition, insect foraging opportunities decline during inclement weather, contributing to nestling mortality via starvation. Western Bluebirds nest in snag and tree cavities, and wildfire likely maintains preferred open woodland-prairie habitat and snag nesting opportunities, although it can eliminate specific nesting trees. Disturbances to nesting habitats and declines in prey availability are the primary pathways through which Western Grebes will exhibit sensitivity to climate change. This species also exhibits some sensitivity to fluctuating water level (high or low), which could lead to declines in nesting habitats. In Washington, increased nest loss due to greater water drawdowns in reservoirs could occur due to the need for expanded agricultural irrigation caused by climate change. Also, damage associated with increased declines in preferred forage fish prey (primarily Pacific Herring) during the non-breeding season are thought to have led to a southern shift of the species to California, and further decreases in Pacific Herring. Increases in air temperature could also prompt shifts in Western Grebe migration timing. This species likely exhibits moderate sensitivity to climate due to its habitat and foraging requirements. In particular, food abundance at wintering areas appears to have a direct effect on population reproduction. Key foraging areas such as eelgrass beds may decrease or increase due to changes in temperature or salinity, or sea level rise. Western Screech Owls may exhibit some physiological sensitivity to Western Grebe Moderate Low Moderate Moderate > Changes in water level. Changes in the timing of precipitation and warmer temperatures may alter timing of prey availability and abundance, with potential impacts on Western Screech Owl fecundity. Similar to the Northern Spotted Owl, this species may be sensitive to altered disturbance regimes. Western Snowy Plover ModerateHigh Moderate High Moderate White-headed Woodpecker LowModerate Moderate LowModerate Moderate > Sea level rise > Increased coastal erosion > Increased storminess/sto rm surge > Increased temperatures > Altered fire regimes > Changes in precipitation the dependence of Western Snowy Plovers on coastal beaches and marshes as habitat for breeding and nesting increases their sensitivity to climate change.
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